Wednesday, September 17, 2008

Cytology and Histopathology Lab

Cytology is the science that utilizes the cells that have desquamated freely from epithelium surfaces body cavities or cells that have been forcibly removed from various issues and fluid to arrive at the diagnosis. The specimens that are process from cytology laboratory are gynaecological specimen for pap smear and non-gynaecological specimen such as fluid, sputum and brushings.

The work that been conducted are labeling of cytological specimen, preparation of smear for non-gynae specimen, staining using May Grunwald Giemsa stain and Papanicolaou stain, process of aspiration material from FNAC, quick dip, cell block and destining procedure. The tasks that I was assigned or observed during my practical in Cytology Laboratory are Labeling of Cytological Specimen, Preparation of Smear for Non-Gynae Specimen, May Grunwald Giemsa Stain, Papanicolaou Stain is to demonstrate nuclear details and preserve of keratin and Process of Aspiration Material from FNAC is to ensure that aspirated material are processed correctly and properly as well as to achieve optimal preservation of cells and nuclear shapes which are important in making the diagnosis.

The purpose of Labeling of Cytological Specimen is to establish the anatomical source of cytological specimen. Preparation of Smear for Non-Gynae Specimen is to concentrate cells and smears preparation for staining procedures. May Grunwald Giemsa Stain are too demonstrate cytoplasmic detail and extracellular substances and also to demonstrate cytoplasmic and nuclear size. The role of histopathology laboratory is to check and process tissues (sections of tissues) for specimens that are take from surgery, biopsy or even autopsy. Section quality, interpretation, and diagnosis depend on the right method when taking and sending the specimens to the laboratory. Clinical information must be written clearly on the request from fast interpretation

Histopathological examination is made to examine the tissue which is taken from operation, tissues taken without operation, for example endoscopy (non-surgically removed tissues) and also autopsy tissue. During my time in this histopathology lab, almost all the works have been take over by the Hospital Besar Ipoh. The specimens that been received are packed and delivered to Hospital Besar Ipoh. Therefore, most of my work was to label the specimen and record all the detail in the log book of histopathology. However, the lab technician told me that the work that were done here were:

1) Labeling of Histopathological Specimen.

2) Foucet-Van Gieson (Bile Pigment Stain).

3) Routine Morphological Staining Using Haematoxylin and Eosin.

4) PAS and Neutral Mucopolysaccharide.

5) Gordon and Sweet’s (Reticulin Fibers).

6) Alcian Blue Stain.

7) Grocott Gomori Methenamine Sliver (GGMS) for Fungi.

8) PAS with Diatase.

9) Special Stain: Congo Red for Amyloid.

10) Diff Quick (Modified Giemsa).

11) Ziehl Neelsen Stain for Acid Bacilli.

12) Masson Trichrome for Muscle and Collagen.

13) PAS with Alcian Blue.

14) Special Stain: Perl’s Prussian Blue for Iron Pigment.

15) Special Stain: Verhoeff-Van Gieson for Elastic Fibres.

16) Special Stain: Southotungistic Mucicarmine for Acid Mucopolysaccharide.

17) Special Stain: Phospotungistic Acid Haematoxylin for Striated Muscle.

18) Prepare Slide From Tissue Paraffin Block.

19) Grossing of Histopathological Specimen.

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